How to use sawdust in the garden?
In the household, especially during construction work, sawdust accumulates - waste from carpentry work. Some young owners, not understanding what priceless material for gardening fell into their hands, immediately send waste to the fire, and then ashes as fertilizer are scattered around the garden. Indeed, where can you use sawdust, how to use them and is it worth the effort? I hasten to reassure readers. There are many ways to use sawdust in gardening. Let's try to figure out where and how sawdust is used.
- What is sawdust?
- Types of sawdust and their use
- Ways to use sawdust
- Using sawdust mulch to prepare tall and warm beds
- Sawdust as insulation and covering material
What is sawdust?
Sawdust - waste from sawing wood and other materials (plywood, boards, etc.). Sawdust material is quite lightweight. The bulk density of wood sawdust is 100 kg per 1 m³ and in the 1st ton contains 9-10 m³ of raw materials with a standard moisture content of 8-15% (Table 1). This material is very convenient to use.
Table 1. The bulk density of wood sawdust
|Bulk density of wood waste||Liter can kg||Standard bucket (10 liters), kg||Mass of 1 cube in kg, kg / m³||The number of cubes per ton (sawdust dry), m³ / t|
|Averaged data (excluding tree species)||0.1 kg||1,0 kg||100 kg / m³||10 m³||9 m³|
Characterization of the composition of sawdust
The chemical composition of sawdust is characterized by the following content of chemical elements:
- 50% carbon:
- 44% oxygen:
- 6% hydrogen%
- 0.1% nitrogen.
In addition, wood contains about 27% lignin, which gives trees lignification density and at least 70% hemicellulose (practically carbohydrates).
Natural organic material, when decomposed in the soil, is a supplier of elements needed by plants. 1 m³ of sawdust contains 250 g of calcium, 150-200 g of potassium, 20 g of nitrogen, about 30 g of phosphorus. In some types of sawdust (for the most part, coniferous), resinous substances are included in the wood, which negatively affect the growth and development of plants.
Sawdust is a sterile substrate and, if it enters the soil, is immediately colonized by microflora. Provided with organic material, microflora for the decomposition of sawdust uses the nutrients of wood and soil, depleting the latter with the necessary nutrients (the same nitrogen and phosphorus).
The composition of natural wood sawdust does not cause allergies; when burned, it does not emit harmful emissions. But you need to keep in mind that the above composition characterizes natural wood, the quality of which determines the composition of sawdust. Sawdust as waste from artificially obtained wood boards impregnated with glues and varnishes can not be used in gardening.
Types of sawdust and their use
Sawdust is called according to the main type of wood culture: birch, linden, oak, chestnut, pine, aspen, coniferous, etc.
All types of sawdust (any tree species) can be used on the farm. But first you need to reduce their negative impact on soil components, using various methods.
This is the most affordable and inexpensive raw material with a wide range of applications in the personal economy. Sawdust is used in the construction of farm buildings, for the insulation of walls, floors and in other cases of construction.
But the most valuable is the use of sawdust in garden works:
- To improve the physical condition of soil for planting garden or horticultural crops.
- As one of the components of compost preparation.
- As a use for mulching vegetable, flower and horticultural crops.
- Sawdust has low thermal conductivity and can be used as a heater for heat-loving plants (roses, young southern fruit crops, exotics in cold regions).
- Sawdust is an indispensable component in the preparation of warm beds.
- As a cover material for paths, from overgrowing the latter with weeds.
Ways to use sawdust
Improving the physical properties of the soil
Black soil, clay and loamy soils are dense and heavy. Most garden plants prefer light, loose, airy, and permeable soil. The qualitative composition of such soils can be improved by adding up to 50% of the soil mass of sawdust when preparing greenhouse substrates or preparing soil mixtures for growing seedlings.
So that sawdust does not reduce fertility, they are mixed with semi-rotted manure before application or mineral fertilizers, a solution of urea or mullein are added.
Composting with sawdust
Compost preparation eliminates all the negative properties of sawdust (depletion of soil soil with nutrients, decrease in the properties of oxidizing agents, decrease in the action of resinous substances, etc.).
Compost can be prepared in two ways:
- receive fast or aerobic compost (with air access), which will be ready for use in 1.0-2.0 months;
- anaerobic compost (without air access); this preparation process is longer (3-6 months depending on the components used), but with this method, the nutritional value of organics is preserved.
Aerobic Compost Preparation
With this method, it is possible to prepare sawdust-mineral, sawdust-organic and sawdust-mixed compost.
- For sawdust-mineral compost for 50 kg (0.5 m³) of sawdust add 1.25 kg of urea, 0.4 kg of superphosphate (double) and 0.75 kg of potassium sulfate. Fertilizers are dissolved in warm water and the sawdust is shed, constantly mixing them or laying in layers. Each layer is shed with a prepared solution. During the composting period, the compost pile is mixed to increase air access, which will accelerate the fermentation of sawdust organics.
- To prepare sawdust-organic compost, chicken droppings or manure are needed. Organic matter is added to the sawdust at the rate of 1: 1 (by weight) and mixed with sawdust or layered for fermentation. During fermentation, aerate the pile with a pitchfork (push).
- To prepare sawdust-mixed compost, sawdust-mineral compost is first laid and after a month of fermentation manure or chicken droppings are added. Manure is added in a ratio of 1: 1, and chicken manure is 2 times less (1: 0.5).
Remember that fast fermentation requires loose laying, without compaction. Air will flow freely into such a compost pile, which will speed up the decomposition of compost components.
If the composts are laid in the spring, then by the fall they will ripen and will be ready for application for digging. Such composts can be applied half-baked, after 3-4 weeks. They are not yet fertilizer, but have already lost the property of negative effects on the soil and plants.
For digging, make 1-2 buckets of ready-made compost, depending on the condition of the soil.
Anaerobic compost preparation method
In the anaerobic method, a compost pile is prepared over time, gradually adding components. In a compost pit with a depth of 50 cm, various crushed organics are laid in layers of 15-25 cm (leaves, branches, unseeded weeds, sawdust, manure, tops from the garden, food waste, etc.). Each layer is sprinkled with one or two shovels of soil and spilled with a fertilizer solution. Up to 100 g of nitrophoska is added to the bucket of solution.
Unlike the first (aerobic) method, all components are well tamped to reduce air access. In this case, anaerobic microflora conducts fermentation. After laying the compost heap, it is covered with a film or a layer of grass. Fermentation lasts 4-6 months. Anaerobic compost is more “nutritious" and all types of waste (including rough branches) are used for its preparation.
When composting, the optimum moisture content of the compost heap should be 50-60%, temperature + 25 ... + 30 ° С.
Mulching in translation into Russian means covering, shelter.
Benefits of using sawdust mulch:
- Sawdust mulch is a cheap natural material for improving the physical properties of the soil;
- it keeps the top layer from overheating in the heat;
- good insulation. Protects the soil from freezing and at the same time freely passes air, preventing the development of putrefactive fungal and bacterial infections;
- mulch from sawdust promotes easy oxidation of the soil, which is important for a number of crops, especially flower ones: begonias, pelargonium, ivy, ficus, cyclamen, citrus and others;
- protects ripening berries in contact with the soil from rotting and pests (slugs).
Disadvantages of Sawdust Mulch
The negative properties of sawdust occur when used improperly:
- in its pure form, this raw material crosses for 8-10 years, using soil nutrients for fermentation;
- when using sawdust for composting, the temperature rises very quickly;
- raw materials with constant application increases the acidity of the soil.
Ways to use sawdust mulch
Clean sawdust covers only paths and other surfaces free from plant crops. For example: aisles, paths, tree trunks in the garden.
Light mulch reflects the rays of the sun, which reduces the heating of the upper layer of soil.
As it shrinks, pure mulch is added to the aisles and tracks. A layer of unprocessed mulch of 6-8 cm, constantly updated, prevents the growth of weeds.
Mulch retains moisture well in soil and on the surface. For a long time, the upper layer is kept moist, protecting it from drying out and cracking.
Mulch is used as a litter under the berry bushes, whose crop spreads on the ground (for example: under strawberries, strawberries).
Mulch the soil around the perimeter of the crown of garden crops. It is possible with clean (untreated) sawdust - against the increased growth of weeds and compost as an organic fertilizer.
Mulch the soil under the plants only need processed sawdust.
In rows with plants, under fruit bushes, only processed mulch is always added (mature compost or half-baked).
During the growing season, plants are fed on top of sawdust. Fertilizers contributed to their faster overheating.
After harvesting, autumn work is carried out directly on the mulch: they dig the soil with the preliminary application of mineral fertilizers and organics.
Using sawdust mulch to prepare tall and warm beds
High warm beds are prepared on any site (rocky, gravelly, with high standing groundwater).
Warm beds (low, surface) are located on cold soils, as well as for obtaining earlier heat-loving vegetables, growing seedlings.
Vegetable crops mature faster on such beds, they are less affected by fungal rot and are affected by pests.
The preparation of beds is carried out in the usual way:
- under the base lay a "drainage" layer of thick branches and other waste;
- the second layer is covered with sawdust, shed with a urea solution;
- sprinkled with any soil, literally a few shovels;
- the next layer is laid out from any other organic matter - straw, manure, chopped weeds, leaf litter;
- each layer has a thickness of 10-15 cm, and the total height of the beds is at the discretion of the owner;
- usually a thermal pad of organic waste is laid at a height of 50-60 cm;
- all layers are shed with hot water, preferably with a solution of urea or any organic matter (manure, bird droppings);
- covered with a black film; warming up usually lasts a week;
- after lowering the temperature of active fermentation, a film is removed and a layer of soil is laid out.
A high bed is distinguished by a fence so that it does not crumble. Ordinary warm beds are buried 25-30 cm into the soil or prepared directly on the soil, removing the uppermost fertile layer (10-15 cm).
If it is necessary to quickly heat the bed, use sawdust mixed with a small amount of lime and ash, and spill with a hot urea solution. You can prepare a mixture of sawdust and manure. Gardeners also use other methods of heating the soil of a warm bed.
Sawdust as insulation and covering material
Sawdust is a good insulation for young seedlings and heat-loving crops.
- When planting in cold regions of heat-loving crops (grapes, various vines), large sawdust mixed with small wood chips (like drainage) is poured into the bottom of the landing pit. They will serve as a heat insulator from deep cold.
- Sawdust can be filled (lightly tamped) with plastic bags or bags and coated on all sides with the roots and shoots of young plants before a steady cold snap.
- It is possible to fill with sawdust bent grapes, clematis, raspberries and other plants bent to the ground along the entire length. Top with a film and crush or drip from gusts of wind. Such a shelter is prepared before the very frost so that mice, other rodents and pests do not arrange for themselves warm winter “apartments” in sawdust.
- Warm shelter can be prepared for rose bushes, other heat-loving crops and young fruit seedlings in the form of wooden frames. Pour sawdust on top of the frame. Spread the ground on the sawdust and cover it with foil. It will turn out a primitive dugout or a warm mound. If you dust the sawdust inside the shields and cover the shield panel with film, the bushes will survive the winter well. In spring, the bushes must be freed from sawdust, so that when the snow melts, water does not get inside and rotting of the lower part of the plants does not begin. Do not leave sawdust open. They are saturated with moisture, freeze in one lump and plants under such a shelter die.
The article provides only a small list of the use of sawdust in the garden and in the garden. Write about your use of sawdust. Your experience will be gratefully used by our readers, especially novice gardeners and gardeners.