Currant propagation by autumn cuttings
September. Autumn has come. Harvested. You can tackle the berry plot, which must have black, red, golden, white currants of different varieties and ripening dates. Currant is a constant source of vitamins, minerals and other essential substances. The average duration of effective fruiting of currants is 12-15 years with proper care and timely pruning and rejuvenation. But there comes a time when you want to propagate the berry. Of course, you can buy ready-made seedlings on the market and plant them in the place allotted for the summer cottage. However, the most reliable way to get the desired planting material of your favorite variety is self-propagation.
- Currant propagation methods
- The harvesting period of autumn cuttings of currant
- Rules for the selection and harvesting of autumn cuttings of currant
- Ways of planting autumn currant cuttings
- Agrotechnical methods of planting and care
Currant propagation methods
Reproduction is carried out by seeds and vegetatively. Reproduction of currant seeds is used in specialized breeding centers for the cultivation of new varieties. In summer conditions, the most optimal is vegetative propagation, which can be done by layering, currant cuttings, dividing the bush.
The simplest and fastest method is grafting. It allows you to get a large amount of planting material painlessly for the bush in spring when pruning the bushes or in autumn. Cuttings are harvested summer or green, apical and autumn. Optimal is the propagation of currants in autumn cuttings.
The harvesting period of autumn cuttings of currant
Autumn cuttings lose less moisture. Shoots “fall asleep” and cuttings in the spring, thanks to the preserved moisture, take root more quickly, forming a good root system.
Autumn or lignified cuttings of different types of currants are harvested at different times.
- Cuttings of black currant in late September and the entire warm period of October.
- Red currants are cutted only in autumn, which ensures good survival. Cuttings are carried out from the third decade of August to September 10-15.
- It is more practical to propagate golden and white currants with spring layers. Rooted cuttings in the fall or next spring are separated from the main bush and planted in open ground.
Rules for the selection and harvesting of autumn cuttings of currant
To select high-quality cuttings of currant, it is necessary to perform some preliminary work.
In the summer, note the strong bushes of the selected variety:
- not damaged by diseases and pests,
- forming a high yield.
When harvesting cuttings, they always work with disinfected tools so as not to infect the infection through fresh wound surfaces. The cut should be smooth (not chewed), so the tools must be sharpened.
On the bushes noted in the summer, preliminary diagnostics are carried out. For harvesting cuttings, it is better to use 3-4-5 year old highly fruitful bushes or to harvest cuttings of special uterine bushes. Healthy root or main shoots with a diameter of 1.0-1.5 cm at the base are selected for cuttings. They are cut without hemp near the ground. Cuttings are cut from harvested shoots, the diameter of which should be 0.5-0.7 cm. Therefore, only the middle part of the shoot is used.
If there is no suitable root shoot of currant, then annual shoots of the first and second orders are harvested. They are represented by lateral shoots located on the basal stem. Several shoots can be cut from the bush, from which up to 20 cuttings can be prepared. Cuttings cut into a length of 15-18-20 cm. The upper cut of the cuttings is made oblique (about 60 degrees) from left to right, 0.5 cm above the kidney, the lower straight line is 0.6-1.0 cm below the kidney. Roots develop in the area of the kidney and adjacent internodes.
- In the southern regions, you can immediately prepare and plant currant cuttings in an open ground school. Usually, landing begins on October 10-15.
- In the middle lane and to the north, cut currant cuttings are more practical to plant in a container and grow in the room before spring. During autumn plantings, rooted cuttings are planted in open ground at the end of August.
- Regardless of the region, you can keep the currant cuttings in a sleeping state until spring and, with the onset of heat, plant them in a prepared open ground school.
Ways of planting autumn currant cuttings
After cutting, currant cuttings are placed with the lower end into a solution of root, heteroauxin or any other growth stimulator by 3-5 cm.
In the solution, the cuttings can withstand up to 5-7 days at an ambient temperature in the range +18 .. + 20ºС. If the cloudiness or the appearance of mold on the surface of the solution, it is replaced with fresh.
Prepared currant cuttings are immediately planted
- in open ground,
- in prepared containers.
When the onset of early cold weather, chopped currant cuttings can be stored until spring and when warm weather sets in, drop them off to school. Small bundles of tied cuttings are stored standing in the snow. If the snow has melted too early, then the bundles are wrapped in a moist burlap, then in a film and kept in the refrigerator until the weather is suitable for planting the cuttings. If there are few currant cuttings, they are simply wrapped in a film and stored in the refrigerator, periodically unfolding to moisturize.
Autumn planting of currant cuttings in open ground
Before cutting the cuttings, a site (school) is prepared. At the allocated place contribute to the square. m area of 10-12 kg of humus or compost for digging with a depth of 25-30 cm. The site is leveled, all lumps are crushed. If necessary - watered. One or 2 trenches are dug along the cord after 40-50 cm. One wall of the trench for the cuttings should be inclined by about 40-45 degrees so that the currant cuttings are inclined. If necessary, pour a layer of sand for drainage, a layer of humus, a layer of earth at the bottom of the trench.
Currant cuttings are laid on the inclined side of the trench so that 2 buds remain on the ground. In varieties with shorter internodes, usually 3 buds are left. In a row, the distance between the cuttings varies between 15-20 cm. Distances can be even greater if the cuttings in the school are up to 2 years of age. If a change is planned for a permanent place in the spring, then the distance between the cuttings in the row is reduced to 7-10 cm.
After filling the trench, the soil around the planted currant cuttings is compacted so that there are no air gaps between the cuttings and the soil, watered with settled (warm) water. After absorbing water, the soil is mulched up to 3-5 cm with small mulch - humus, peat, finely chopped straw, other material. If the weather is warm for a long time, it is necessary to loosen and water the landing. Drying of the soil is unacceptable. Recently, mulching is carried out with a permeable coating material.
Wintered currant cuttings in spring at a soil temperature of more than +10 .. + 12ºС take root and begin to develop the aerial part. By the end of May, they have 1-2 roots and buds that have opened or unfolded leaves. During this period, rooted cuttings of currant can be planted in a permanent place. But it is better to grow the cuttings before the fall in the school and only then transplant to the “permanent”. During the summer, currant cuttings will develop a good root system and aerial parts. You can even trim the annual growth, leaving 2 buds on the lateral shoot of the rooted cuttings, and use the trimmed part for propagation.
Planting cuttings of currant in a container
Harvested currant cuttings before spring can be planted in separate containers and placed on a tray on window sills. In this way, cuttings are prepared for planting in open ground in central Russia, where the autumn period is short and cold. Currant cuttings do not have time to adapt to new conditions and during the winter some of them die.
For planting currant cuttings, any containers are used: pots, boxes, 1.5 liter bottles of mineral water. The soil mixture is prepared from different components: peat, humus, sand and soil, mixing equal parts of the ingredients. At the bottom of the tank, holes are made to drain excess water and drainage. Cuttings 1-3 are buried in the soil mixture to the top two kidneys. The soil is carefully compacted and watered. All winter planting is taken care of, preventing waterlogging or drying of the soil.
In spring, at soil temperatures above + 10 .. + 12ºС, rooted cuttings of currant are transplanted to the school or immediately to a permanent place. In the school, in spring and summer, cuttings will turn into well-rooted seedlings and, when planted in autumn, will easily tolerate winter. Usually the survival rate is 100%.
Agrotechnical methods of planting and care
Depending on the type of currant, places of continuous cultivation are selected different. So, blackcurrant grows in open places and in partial shade, in low humid areas, but without stagnation of water and waterlogging. Red and white currants are more drought tolerant and more practical to plant in an elevated and well-lit place.
Neutral heavy and medium loamy soils are suitable for blackcurrant. Red and white currants form good crops on loamy soils, but they prefer light and loamy sand.
The currant area is carefully leveled, which is important for subsequent watering of the crop. It is imperative that seedlings are thoroughly cleaned from perennial rhizome weeds that inhibit young plantings before planting seedlings. Dig the site to the depth of the bayonet shovel. Before digging, they bring in a bucket of humus or compost and phosphorus-potassium fertilizers, respectively, 40-50 and 20-30 g per 1 sq. m square. Currant planting pits are prepared during autumn planting 2-3 weeks before planting bushes, and in spring it is better to prepare them in the fall.
Prior to planting, rooted cuttings / seedlings are scanned and removed by diseased, broken branches, and dried roots. The aerial part is cut to 15-20 cm and soaked for 3-6 hours in a solution of root or other root forming drug.
If planting is carried out by 2 - summer seedlings, then leave annual shoots with 2 to 4 buds. Cropping of the aerial part is required. A small above-ground mass will allow the bush to use more nutrients for the development of the root system. Remember that the currant root system begins to develop and function at a soil temperature of +16 .. + 18ºС, and above-ground much earlier, at an air temperature of +6 .. + 8 ° С. A poorly developed root system will not be able to ensure the normal development of the aerial mass and the formation of a sufficiently high quality crop.
The main methods of planting currant seedlings
After preparing the landing site, depending on the variety, the landing pits are prepared with a distance between the rows of 1.7-2.0 m and in the row of 1.0-1.25-1.5 meters. The preliminary size of the planting pit is 30-40x30-40 cm in depth up to 35-40 cm. The final size of the seat is prepared under the root system of the seedling.
A prepared soil mixture is made into the planting pit, consisting of 6-8 kg of humus (if the soil is heavy) and, respectively, 40 and 20 g of phosphorus-potassium fertilizers. On light soils, you can limit yourself to the introduction of nitroammophoski at 50-70 g / well or other complete fertilizer.
Most varieties of currants are self-fertile and do not need a partner, but in order for the crops to be constantly high, it is better to plant several inter-pollinated varieties.
1/3 of the planting hole is covered with a prepared soil mixture so that one wall is inclined.
The seedling is placed in a pit at an angle of 40-45 degrees along the row and gradually fall asleep with soil, constantly compacting with your hand so that there are no air gaps between the root and the soil.
The root neck of the currant should be 5-8 cm below the soil level. This is necessary for additional shoots.
note: seedlings must be placed obliquely. This technique will contribute to the development of additional roots of the root system, and additional shoots will form from the root of the root neck buried in the soil and part of the stem. A lush bush will grow. With a direct landing. One little branchy shtamb will develop. This planting is used in the formation of miniature currant trees.
- After backfilling, 2/3 of the pit is poured under the planting of 0.5 bucket of defended warm water. The pit is filled up to the end, compacted. A hole is formed around the planting so that the water does not spill around, and another 0.5 buckets of water are added.
- After absorbing water, the planting is mulched with a fine mulch.
- After 4-5 days, the landing is re-watered.
So that the seedling weakened by the transplant does not suffer (especially the root) from winter colds, the planting before a steady cooling is spudled, leaving a part of the stem with 1-2 buds on the surface and mulched with a layer of 5-7 cm.
Currant planting care
The main care in the post-planting period includes watering, fertilizing, pruning and protecting plants from pests and diseases according to the usual agrotechnical scheme for caring for planting berries.